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Validating technique in psycohology

Suggest the impact that these research examples could have on society Freud and many of his followers believed that biological differences between men and women had major consequences for psychological development. Freud believed that gender divergence begins at the onset of the phallic stage, where the girl realises that she has no penis, and starts to feel inferior to boys (penis envy).

Penis envy becomes a major driving force in the girl’s mental life, and needs to be successfully sublimated into a desire for a husband and children if it is not to become pathological.

Cultures may differ from one another in many ways, so that the findings of psychological research conducted in one culture may not apply directly to another.Alpha bias - this occurs when the differences between men and women are exaggerated.Therefore, stereotypically male and female characteristics may be emphasised.He then inappropriately generalized his findings to women (beta bias) and also claimed women generally reached lower level of moral development (androcentrism).Carol Gilligan highlighted the gender bias inherent in Kohlberg’s work and suggested women make moral decisions in a different way to men (care ethic vs. However, her research is, arguably, also (alpha) biased, as male and female moral reasoning is more similar than her work suggests.Beta bias -this occurs when the differences between men and women are minimised.This often happens when findings obtained from men are applied to women without additional validation.All his theories are androcentric, most obviously: -‘Penis envy’ – women are defined psychologically by the fact that they aren’t men.But Freud’s ideas had serious consequences/implications they reinforced stereotypes e.g. • Although female psychology students outnumber male, at a senior teaching and research level in universities, men dominate. • Research agenda follows male concerns, female concerns may be marginalised or ignored.Freud’s ideas are seen as inherently gender biased, but it must be remembered that he was a product of his time.He saw ‘Biology as destiny’ and women’s roles as prescribed & predetermined.

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