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The main task of research into the formation of the Lithuanian state is to minimize the inevitable part played by imagination and to make the reconstruction as plausible as possible.

Its two miniatures are directly related to Lithuanian history (tributary peoples of Ruthenia and a Ruthenian raid against the Yatvingians in 1113).

There are also some illustrations of events from Ruthenian history, which were important for Lithuania.

My book “Lietuvos valstybės ištakos” (“The Formation of the Lithuanian State”) was published in the end of May, 2000 in Vilnius by “Vaga” publishers. This problem arises at the juncture of Lithuanian history and prehistory, but information about Lithuanian society in those times is still rather scanty.

The formation of the Lithuanian state has been an object of research for many years.

The publishers of this Chronicle chose the Ipat'evsky manuscript as their source. Hrushevski assumes that Khlebnikov's manuscript contains the more archaic text.

The Volhynian Chronicle contains much original information about Lithuania in the second half of the 12 centuries.Besides this information, the Lithuanians are mentioned in the preface of Nestor's Chronicle as tributaries of Ruthenia (Rus').The first Novgorod Chronicle is the oldest surviving Ruthenian chronicle (its synodal manuscript dates from the end of the 13 centuries.A very important source for our theme is The Lay of lgor's Campaign (1185; the only manuscript, from the 16 century, was lost during the Moscow fire of 1812, but two copies of it have survived).There have been a few attempts in historiography to doubt the authenticity of The Lay.The military actions of Lithuania in the north are widely mirrored in the Livonian chronicles.Henricus de Lettis' Chronicle gives an account of events which occurred in 1184-1227 (the oldest manuscript is the Zamojski Codex from the beginning of the 14 century.Of course, any investigation into this problem is impossible without a definition of the concept of the state itself.We can tentatively distinguish two main concepts of the state - a narrow one and a broad one.The author - a contemporary of the events described - unfortunately had no knowledge of Lithuanian internal politics.For this reason, the greatest number of references relates only to frequent Lithuanian attacks.

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